1tn Heb “set your face against.”

2sn This may refer to a Lydian king in western Asia Minor in the seventh century b.c. Apart from Ezek 38-39, the only other biblical reference to this king/nation is in Rev 20:8. For a study of the names appearing in this verse, see E. Yamauchi, Foes From the Northern Frontier, 19-27.

3sn One of the sons of Japheth according to Gen 10:2; 1 Chr 1:5.

4tn Heb “the prince, the chief of Meshech and Tubal.” Some translate “the prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal,” but it is more likely that the Hebrew noun in question is a common noun in apposition to “prince,” rather than a proper name. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:434-35. As Block demonstrates, attempts by some popular writers to identify these proper names with later geographical sites in Russia are anachronistic. See as well E. Yamauchi, Foes From the Northern Frontier, 19-27.

sn Meshech and Tubal were two nations in Cappadocia of Asia Minor. They were also sons of Japheth (Gen 10:2; 1 Chr 1:5).

5tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.

6sn The Hebrew text mentions two different types of shields here.

7tn D. I. Block prefers to see the Hebrew word as referring here to a western ally of Egypt or as an alternative spelling for Pathros, that is, Upper Egypt. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:439-40.

8sn That is, Lydia.

9tn The words “they are joined by” are added in the translation for purposes of English style.

10sn The seven-nation coalition represents the north (Meshech, Tubal, Gomer, Beth-Togarmah), the south/west (Ethiopia, Put) and the east (Persia). The use of the sevenfold list suggests completeness. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:441.

11tn The second person singular verbal and pronominal forms in the Hebrew text indicate that Gog is addressed here.

12tn Heb “from the sword.”

13tn Heb “it.”

14tn Heb “go up.”

15tn Heb “words will go up upon your heart.”

16tn Heb “go up against.”

17tn Heb “come (to).”

18tn Heb “to turn your hand against.”

19tn The Hebrew term occurs elsewhere only in Judg 9:37. Perhaps it means “high point, top.”

20tn Heb “young lions.”

21tn The Hebrew text is framed as a rhetorical question: “will you not take notice?”

22tn Heb “come up.”

23tn Or “reveal my holiness.”

24tn Heb “by the hand of my servants.”

25tn The Hebrew text adds “years” here, but this is probably a scribal gloss on the preceding phrase. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:201.

26tn Heb “goes up against.”

27sn The phrase “in the fire of my fury” occurs in Ezek 21:31; 22:21, 31.

28tn Or “shaking.”

29tn Or “tremble.”

30tn The term occurs only here and in Song of Songs 2:14.

31tn Heb “against.”

32tn Heb “him”; the referent (Gog, cf. v. 18) has been specified in the translation for clarity.