1tn Grk “Boasting is necessary.”

2sn In the NT, paradise is mentioned three times. In Luke 23:43 it refers to the abode of the righteous dead. In Rev 2:7 it refers to the restoration of Edenic paradise predicted in Isa 51:3 and Ezek 36:35. The reference here in 2 Cor 12:4 is probably to be translated as parallel to the mention of the “third heaven” in v. 2. Assuming that the “first heaven” would be atmospheric heaven (the sky) and “second heaven” the more distant stars and planets, “third heaven” would refer to the place where God dwells. This is much more likely than some variation on the seven heavens mentioned in the pseudepigraphic book 2 Enoch and in other nonbiblical and rabbinic works.

3tn Or “things that cannot be put into words.”

4tn Grk “a man.”

5tn Or “speaking.”

6tn Or “may think of.”

7tc Most mss (46 D Ψ 1881 ¤) lack διό (dio, “Therefore”), but the widespread distribution and quality of mss which include it (א A B F G 0243 33 81 1175 1739 pc) argues for its authenticity. Internally, its case is equally strong in that its inclusion is grammatically rough (διό is hardly necessary to convey purpose, especially since Paul uses ἵνα [{ina, “so that”] next).

8tn Or “to harass.”

9tn The phrase “so that I might not become arrogant” is repeated here because it occurs in the Greek text two times in the verse. Although redundant, it is repeated because of the emphatic nature of its affirmation.

10tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” because of the contrast implicit in the context.

11tn Or “is sufficient.”

12tc The majority of later mss (א2 Ac D1 Ψ 0243 0278 33 1739 1881 ¤) as well as some versional witnesses include the pronoun “my” here, but the omission of the pronoun has excellent external support (46vid א* A* B D* F G latt). Scribes probably added the pronoun for clarity, making the obvious referent explicit. This would also make “power” more parallel with “my grace.” Though the original text probably did not include “my,” scribes who added the word were following the sense of Paul’s statement.

tn The pronoun “my” was supplied in the translation to clarify the sense of Paul’s expression.

13tn Or “my power comes to full strength.”

14tn “Most gladly,” a comparative form used with superlative meaning and translated as such.

15tn Or “may rest on.”

16tn Or “I take delight in.”

17tn Or “calamities.”

18tn Or “I am in no way inferior.”

19tn Or “patience,” “endurance.”

20tn Or “and miracles.”

21tn Grk “For in what respect.”

22tn Grk “children ought not,” but this might give the impression that children are not supposed to support sick or aging parents in need of help. That is not what Paul is saying. His point is that children should not have to pay their parent’s way.

23tn Grk “souls.”

24tn The Greek construction anticipates a negative answer, indicated by the ‘tag’ question “have I?” at the end of the clause. The question is rhetorical.

25tn The words “to visit you” are not in the Greek text but are implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, and must be supplied for the modern reader.

26tn Grk “the.”

27tn The Greek construction anticipates a negative answer, indicated by the ‘tag’ question “did he?” at the end of the clause.

28tn Grk “[Did we not walk] in the same tracks?” This is an idiom that means to imitate someone else or to behave as they do. Paul’s point is that he and Titus have conducted themselves in the same way toward the Corinthians. If Titus did not take advantage of the Corinthians, then neither did Paul.

29tc The reading “all this time” (πάλαι, palai) is found in several early and important Alexandrian and Western witnesses including א* A B F G 0243 6 33 81 365 1175 1739 1881 lat; the reading πάλιν (palin, “again”) is read by א2 D Ψ 0278 ¤ sy bo; the reading οὐ πάλαι (ou palai) is read by 46, making the question even more emphatic. The reading of 46 could only have arisen from πάλαι. The reading πάλιν is significantly easier (“are you once again thinking that we are defending ourselves?”), for it softens Paul’s tone considerably. It thus seems to be a motivated reading and cannot easily explain the rise of πάλαι. Further, πάλαι has considerable support in the Alexandrian and Western witnesses, rendering it virtually certain as the original wording here.

30tn Or “for your strengthening”; Grk “for your edification.”

31tn Grk “and I will be found by you.” The passive construction has been converted to an active one in the translation.

32tn The words “I am afraid that” are not repeated in the Greek text, but are needed for clarity.

33tn Or “intense anger, hostility.”

34tn The words “I am afraid that” are not repeated in the Greek text from v. 20, but are needed for clarity.

35tn Or “I will mourn over.”